Thursday, July 9, 2020
Can a Husband be Accused and Charged of Raping His own Wife? (Essay Sample) Content: Can a husband be accused and charged of raping his own wife?Aggrey Africa OuleWriteZillasCan a husband be accused and charged of raping his own wife?Marital rape is a neglected topic. Until recently, spousal exemption licensed rape in marriage. The spousal exemption saw the birth of the rape immunity law, which fueled marital rape by allowing men to perceive women as the possessions and passive objects of their husbandÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s desires. The spousal exemption was an extension of the historic dominance of men over women. The law gave male power over wives institutional legitimacy. As a result, the law on sexual assault was only significant when it was involving intercourse out of marriageCITATION Ham01 \p 57 \l 1033 (Hammer, 2001, p. 57). However, alongside battery, rape creates a climate of terror and oppression in the domestic sphere that damages both physical and mental healthCITATION Ben03 \p 228 \l 1033 (Bennice, 2003, p. 228). Marital rape is indeed a crime a nd any husband found guilty of this inhuman act should be prosecuted and charged in a court of law.The internationalization of human rights activism in the 1980s and early 1990s saw the abolishment of spousal exemption within the legislation of some countries or states. While lawyers and legislators debate on the issue, those in positions best suited to understand this form of intimate violence remain silent. It is difficult to assess incidences of marital rape since not all women coerced into sex perceive it as rape. The greatest concern to most legal practitioners is how exactly rape or absence of consent should be defined. Nonetheless, public and professional awareness on the existence of marital rape is growing. The slowly accumulating evidence suggests that rape in marriage is not a rare crime but a persistent problem in most marriagesCITATION Gel83 \p 17 \l 1033 (Gelles, 1983, p. 17).The traditional assumption that taking marital vows make women lose control over their bodies or sexuality is both morally and legally unacceptable. Women are increasingly gaining awareness on their rights with regard to...
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The saying Ã¢â¬Å"Opposites attract, and likes repelÃ¢â¬ have been around for a long time, but like other adages, it does not have a clear basis. In fact, the opposite of that statement is true with the support of Geoffrey ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s Canterbury Tales and works of modern psychology. In ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s tales, the duality of marriage is evident. The ones that end with a successful relationship are the result of the partnersÃ¢â¬â¢ similar external physical traits or internal thoughts, and the vice versa. While many factors account for a successful relationship, the most important is the similarity between the partners. First off, it is vital that each partner of a successful relationship holds equal power. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Wife of BathsÃ¢â¬â¢ PrologueÃ¢â¬ , the narratorÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In this tale, the difference in power reinforced PerteloteÃ¢â¬â¢s dismissive attitude. Shown in two of ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s tales is the idea that the inequality of power leads to an ineffective relationship. Therefore, it is evident that there needs to be a similarity of power held by each partner for a relationship to flourish. In addition to the similarity of power, there needs to be a similar mindset when it comes to goals for a successful relationship. Fletcher and Overall masterfully adds on to this topic in their article Intimate Relationships. They present the given matrix Ã¢â¬Å"a selfish frame of mindÃ¢â¬ (464) and the effective matrix, the Ã¢â¬Å"relationship or partner-serving orientationÃ¢â¬ (464). They explain that Ã¢â¬Å"the shift from [the given matrix] Ã¢â¬ ¦ to [the effective matrix] Ã¢â¬ ¦ are thought to be important in maintaining successful relationships.Ã¢â¬ (464). To simply put it, couples that have symbiotic goals tend to have a more fruitful relationship, and vice versa. One example would be in Ã¢â¬Å"The MerchantÃ¢â¬â¢s TaleÃ¢â¬ . The main characters, May and January, have vastly different goals from each other. Thi s dictates that their marriage is doomed from the beginning. May, a young virgin, is looking for a boost in social status and a rich husband. She found this in January, who in return is looking for a wife to settle down
Norsk Petroleum is a leading gas and oil exploration company based in Oslo, Norway. It employs 2564 people, and its business operations comprise the exploration, production and marketing of crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. In 2007 most of its business was conducted in Norway and Canada, although its interests included ventures in West Africa, Australia, the Gulf of Mexico and Venezuela. When Usa Bohm, the human resources director for Norsk Petroleum, read an email message from Elizabeth Pedersen she knew she had another urgent issue to deal with that week. Elizabeth Pedersen was a petroleum engineer who had the task of deciding how to extract the oil once it had been found by geologists, and extraction had been estimated to be viable by the companys team of geophysicists. Elizabeth had requested a meeting with Usa for the next day, but she did not say what the purpose was. Usa suspected that Elizabeth was intending to tender her resignation. We will write a custom essay sample on Motivation at Norsk Petroleum or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Usas problem was not new, or unique to Norsk Petroleum. In the previous five years, the major oil companies such as Amoco, Bp, Exxon and Shell had accelerated their oil exploration and extraction operations. With the expansion of exploration and extraction in Iraq, following the US and British military intervention, many small independent gas and oil companies had also entered the market or stepped up their operations. After graduating from university, the knowledge workers of the industry geologists, geophysicists and petroleum engineers need at least three years field experience before they become fully qualified and valued professionals. There was a shortage of, and an urgent need for, qualified professionals. Many small companies had resorted to using executive recruitment agencies or head huntersÃ¢â¬â¢. In the previous 12 months, 18 (15 per cent) of the Norsk Petroleum scientists had resigned after receiving offers from rival companies. As Usa was pondering what she would do about the loss of petroleum engineers, and specifically what she would say to Elizabeth Pedersen, there was a knock on her office door. Gottfred Eng, manager of computer services, walked into the office and asked her to sign an advertising request form; for an ad for a replacement for Ola Rennemo, a computer technician. Why is he leaving? Usa asked. His new company is closer to home and it will reduce his travel to work timeÃ¢â¬â¢, Gottfred replied. Ask him to come and see me on Friday before he leaves. I would like to conduct an exit interview with himÃ¢â¬â¢. The meeting with Elizabeth Pedersen took place the next day. It began with comments on the weather, her daughter who had recently married, and brief discussion about the progress on the latest drilling project. Then Elizabeth made a flawless statement: Usa, Im really grateful for all the support the company has given; the work has been challenging but Im leaving Norsk to take up a new position at PetrowestÃ¢â¬â¢. Anticipating the next question, she continued, Its a small, independent company which has won a major contract to explore off the Newfoundland Coast in Canada. Im excited by the job. And Ill have greater responsibility for managing two three-person teams of petroleum engineers, and negotiating contracts with the suppliersÃ¢â¬â¢. Usa mulled over on the words small, independent company~ Unlike large companies such as Norsk Petroleum, where petroleum engineers focused on specialized tasks related to their knowledge, the small exploration companies required their engineers to take on wider projects and managerial responsibilities, negotiate with customers and suppliers, and work on capital projects. Usa knew from labour market surveys that Elizabeth was already well paid, but she offered a 5 per cent increase in her salary, additional stock options and a company car. She also pointed out that the companys share values had been steadily increasing despite a sluggish stock market. Elizabeth said she would consider the new pay package, saying she needed to sleep on it: Let me ask you this, Elizabeth; Usa added. Are you unhappy with your supervisor, or are you having problems with your team members? Elizabeth replied that her team leader and other team members were fine. The meeting ended with Elizabeth promising to consider the improved compensation package. On Friday morning that week Usa conducted an exit interview with the technician Ola Rennemo. After enquiring about his wife, who was expecting a baby, and their new home, she asked, Why are you leaving the company? Your performance appraisal has been consistently excellent and I believe you would have a bright future if you chose to stay with Norsk PetroleumÃ¢â¬â¢. To be closer to my familyÃ¢â¬â¢ Rennemo responded. Usa was aware that thousands of large, medium and small technology businesses across the country were trying to recruit and keep high-tech talent such as Ola. She was also aware that in line with the companys stated policy on being a learning organizationÃ¢â¬â¢ she had agreed to pay for his technical upgrade courses, and a team leadership course held at the local college. She knew she had to stop, or at least slow down, the haemorrhage of talent from the company. She also knew from reading Olas latest appraisal report that he was ambitious, so she tried what she considered an innovative approach to the problem: professional development. If the company paid the tuition for a diploma in management, would you stay? Thanks, but its too late. Im committed to the new jobÃ¢â¬â¢ Ola replied. At 4 oclock that afternoon, Usa received Elizabeth Pedersens letter of resignation. On Monday morning, she would be calling a meeting of departmental managers to garner ideas for recruiting and keeping their petroleum engineers and their high-tech support staff.
Wednesday, April 22, 2020
Do you have a strategy to grow your business that is aligned with your vision? Are your business and support units aligned with organization strategy? Are employees and the work they do aligned with strategy and a shared vision for the future? How are you keeping score and communicating performance progress internally and externally toward goals? If you would like to develop an aligned business strategy, and measure and communicate with clarity how well you are executing your strategy, then a strategy-based balanced scorecard system may be what you need. By Howard Rohm President and CEO Balanced Scorecard Institute Ã¢â¬Å"Balanced scorecardÃ¢â¬ means different things to different people. At one extreme, measurement-based balanced scorecards are simple Mark Malinoski dashboards of performance measures grouped into categories that Founder, RKS Innovations are of interest primarily to an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s managers and executives. Typical categories include financial measures, and customer, process, and organization capacity measures. We will write a custom essay sample on Safaricom or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Measurement-based scorecards almost always report on operational performance measures, and offer little strategic insight into the way an organization creates value for its customers and other stakeholders. At the other extreme, a strategic performance scorecard system is an organization-wide integrated strategic planning, management and measurement system. Strategy-based scorecards align the work people do with corporate vision and strategy, and communicate strategic intent throughout the organization. In other words, these systems incorporate the culture of the organization into the management system. In strategy-based scorecards, performance measures are only one of several important components, and the measures are used to better inform decision making at all levels in the organization. In strategy-based balanced scorecard systems, performance measures are the result of thinking about business strategy first, to measure progress toward goals. In strategy-based systems, the first question to answer is the strategic question: Ã¢â¬Å"Are we doing the right things? Ã¢â¬ The operations, process, and tactical questions come later: Ã¢â¬Å"Are we doing things rightÃ¢â¬ . Over the past decade balanced scorecards have evolved from systems that simply measure performance to holistic strategic planning and management systems that help manage and track strategy execution. Despite this evolution, the majority of balanced scorecards that we have seen over the past 10 years use a Ã¢â¬Å"just give me the measuresÃ¢â¬ philosophy. These measure-centric dashboard scorecards are interesting, but not very robust and not 975 Walnut Street, Suite 360 . Cary, North Carolina 27511 USA . Phone: 919. 460. 8180 Fax 919. 460. 0867 . www. balancedscorecard. org Strategy-Based Balanced Scorecards for Technology Companies Ã¢â¬â Page 2 of 14 nearly as helpful as they could be. These scorecards remind me of the old WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s commercial: Ã¢â¬Å"WhereÃ¢â¬â¢s the beef? Ã¢â¬ Strategy-based scorecard systems, on the other hand, create a Ã¢â¬Å"strategic thinkingÃ¢â¬ mentality in an organization, and can help lift the organization and its workforce to a higher, more performance-oriented way to think and work. Each organization is unique, and there is no Ã¢â¬Å"one scorecard fits allÃ¢â¬ solution. This article describes how to develop a strategy-based balanced scorecard system for technology companies. WeÃ¢â¬â¢ll share some lessons learned from developing strategic performance scorecard systems in dozens of businesses and industries over the past 10 years. The Balanced Scorecard as a Technology CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Strategic Planning and Management System Technology company management teams are challenged by: ? ? ? ? ? Rapidly shrinking product cycles Recruiting, retaining and rewarding technology talent Making and communicating critical product development decisions Tracking the evolution of customer feature demands and use models Disruptive, enabling technologies that can invalidate products or entire business models In addition, executives rarely communicate the strategic manner in which the business is being directed. The typical result is disagreement and misalignment in how these challenges are perceived and addressed throughout the company. Any technology company strategy needs to embrace these challenges. Strategy is a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to achieving its visionitÃ¢â¬â¢s the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"game planÃ¢â¬ for success. One thing the technology companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy needs to define is how it will measure product planning and development success. Strategy needs to define how ideas are advanced into opportunities. Passionate technology workers need to know why their ideas and views were embraced, delayed, or discarded. Strategy must describe the timing of such considerations, so that investments in programs underway are protected from an ill-timed innovation capturing the minds of employees. Similarly, programs that are off track need to sound alarms so that corrective action can be taken. Strategy needs to guide when and how to sound those alarms and ensure necessary corrections are taken. Strategy needs to dictate tracking customer feature evolution, and if the company wields the core technology its products need to be successful in the marketplace. Using a balanced scorecard as the strategic planning and management framework allows a company to deal with these and other issues that matter to creating value for customers and stakeholders, such as process efficiency, financial performance, and organizational capacity and readiness. Starting with a strategic view of how the organization creates value for customers, a scorecard system links strategy to what must be done operationally to be successful. Good scorecard systems focus on the critical few performance measures that provide real business intelligence and contribute to the achievement of operational excellence, employee excellence, and business success. But more important, these systems focus on the elements of strategy that can be made actionable Ã¢â¬â strategic objectives that are the building blocks of strategy. 975 Walnut Street, Suite 360 . Cary, North Carolina 27511 USA . Phone: 919. 460. 8180 Fax 919. 460. 0867 . www. balancedscorecard. org Strategy-Based Balanced Scorecards for Technology Companies Ã¢â¬â Page 3 of 14 Developing a Technology Company Balanced Scorecard System The logic of building a scorecard system and using the system as the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic planning and management framework starts with an understanding of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s customers and stakeholders, and their needs. The management team then develops and validates the strategic components of the management system. The components include mission, vision, core values, strategic perspectives (i. . , performance dimensions), strategic themes and desired strategic results, strategic objectives, an organization-wide strategy map, performance measures and targets, and strategic initiatives aligned with the objectives. Strategy is the common thread through the scorecard system and forms the basis for communicating the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s approach for gaining competitive advantage (for a business), or in the case of a public or nonprofit organization, for improving mission effectiveness for stakeholders.
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Harry Houdini - The Great Escape Artist Harry Houdini remains one of the most famous magicians in history. Although Houdini could do card tricks and traditional magic acts, he was most famous for his ability to escape from what seemed like anything and everything, including ropes, handcuffs, straightjackets, jail cells, water-filled milk cans, and even nailed-shut boxes that had been thrown into a river. After World War I, Houdini turned his knowledge about deception against Spiritualists who claimed to be able to contact the dead. Then, at age 52, Houdini died mysteriously after being hit in the abdomen. Dates: March 24, 1874 Ã¢â¬â October 31, 1926 Also Known As: Ehrich Weisz, Ehrich Weiss, The Great Houdini HoudiniÃ¢â¬â¢s Childhood Throughout his life, Houdini propagated many legends about his beginnings, which have so oft been repeated that it has been difficult for historians to piece together the true story of HoudiniÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood. However, it is believed that Harry Houdini was born Ehrich Weisz on March 24, 1874, in Budapest, Hungary. His mother, Cecilia Weisz (neÃ © Steiner), had six children (five boys and one girl) of which Houdini was the fourth child. HoudiniÃ¢â¬â¢s father, Rabbi Mayer Samuel Weisz, also had a son from a previous marriage. With conditions looking bleak for Jews in Eastern Europe, Mayer decided to emigrate from Hungary to the United States. He had a friend who lived in the very small town of Appleton, Wisconsin, and so Mayer moved there, where he helped form a small synagogue. Cecilia and the children soon followed Mayer to America when Houdini was about four years old. While entering into the U.S., immigration officials changed the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s name from Weisz to Weiss. Unfortunately for the Weiss family, MayerÃ¢â¬â¢s congregation soon decided that he was too old-fashioned for them and let him go after only a few years. Despite being able to speak three languages (Hungarian, German, and Yiddish), Mayer couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t speak English- Ã a serious drawback for a man trying to find a job in America. In December 1882, when Houdini was eight years old, Mayer moved his family to the much larger city of Milwaukee, hoping for better opportunities. With the family in dire financial straits, the children got jobs to help support the family. This included Houdini, who worked odd jobs selling newspapers, shining shoes, and running errands. In his spare time, Houdini read library books regarding magic tricks and contortionist movements. At age nine, Houdini and some friends established a five-cent circus, where he wore red woolen stockings and called himself Ehrich, Prince of the Air.Ã¢â¬ At age eleven, Houdini worked as a locksmith apprentice. When Houdini was about 12 years old, the Weiss family moved to New York City. While Mayer tutored students in Hebrew, Houdini found a job cutting fabrics into strips for neckties. Despite working hard, the Weiss family was always short on money. This forced Houdini to use both his cleverness and confidence to find innovative ways to make a little extra money. In his spare time, Houdini proved himself a natural athlete, who enjoyed running, swimming, and bicycling. Houdini even received several medals in cross-country track competitions. The Creation of Harry Houdini At age fifteen, Houdini discovered the magicianÃ¢â¬â¢s book, Memoirs of Robert-Houdin, Ambassador, Author, and Conjurer, Written by Himself. Houdini was mesmerized by the book and stayed up all night reading it. He later stated that this book truly sparked his enthusiasm for magic. Houdini would eventually read all of Robert-HoudinÃ¢â¬â¢s books, absorbing the stories and advice contained within. Through these books, Robert-Houdin (1805-1871) became a hero and a role model to Houdini. To get started on this new passion, the young Ehrich Weiss needed a stage name. Jacob Hyman, a friend of HoudiniÃ¢â¬â¢s, told Weiss that there was a French custom that if you add the letter Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ to the end of your mentorÃ¢â¬â¢s name it showed admiration. Adding an Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"HoudinÃ¢â¬ resulted in Ã¢â¬Å"Houdini.Ã¢â¬ For a first name, Ehrich Weiss chose Ã¢â¬Å"Harry,Ã¢â¬ the Americanized version of his nickname Ã¢â¬Å"Ehrie.Ã¢â¬ He then combined Ã¢â¬Å"HarryÃ¢â¬ with Ã¢â¬Å"Houdini,Ã¢â¬ to create the now famous name Ã¢â¬Å"Harry Houdini.Ã¢â¬ Liking the name so much, Weiss and Hyman partnered together and called themselves Ã¢â¬Å"The Brothers Houdini.Ã¢â¬ In 1891, the Brothers Houdini performed card tricks, coin swaps, and disappearing acts at HuberÃ¢â¬â¢s Museum in New York City and also at Coney Island during the summer. About this time, Houdini purchased a magician trick (magicians often bought tricks of the trade from each other) called Metamorphosis that involved two people trading places in a locked trunk onstage behind a screen. In 1893, the Brothers Houdini were allowed a spot to perform outside the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s fair in Chicago. By this time, Hyman had left the act and had been replaced by HoudiniÃ¢â¬â¢s real brother, Theo (Ã¢â¬Å"DashÃ¢â¬ ). Houdini Marries Bessie and Joins the Circus After the fair, Houdini and his brother returned to Coney Island, where they performed at the same hall as the singing and dancing Floral Sisters. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t long before a romance blossomed between 20-year-old Houdini and 18-year-old Wilhelmina Beatrice (Ã¢â¬Å"BessÃ¢â¬ ) Rahner of the Floral Sisters. After a three-week courtship, Houdini and Bess were married on June 22, 1894. With Bess being of petite stature, she soon replaced Dash as HoudiniÃ¢â¬â¢s partner since she was better able to hide inside various boxes and trunks in vanishing acts. Bess and Houdini called themselves Monsieur and Mademoiselle Houdini, Mysterious Harry and LaPetite Bessie, or The Great Houdinis. The Houdinis performed for a couple of years in dime museums and then in 1896, the Houdinis went to work in the Welsh Brothers Traveling Circus. Bess sang songs while Houdini did magic tricks, and together they performed the Metamorphosis act. The Houdinis Join Vaudeville and a Medicine Show In 1896, when the circus season ended, the Houdinis joined a traveling vaudeville show. During this show, Houdini added a handcuff-escape trick to the Metamorphosis act. In each new town, Houdini would visit the local police station and announce that he could escape from any handcuffs they put on him. Crowds would gather to watch as Houdini easily escaped. These pre-show exploits were often covered by a local newspaper, creating publicity for the vaudeville show. To keep audiences further amused, Houdini decided to escape from a straitjacket, using his agility and flexibility to wiggle free from it. When the vaudeville show ended, the Houdinis scrambled to find work, even contemplating work other than magic. Thus, when they were offered a position with Dr. HillÃ¢â¬â¢s California Concert Company, an old-time traveling medicine show selling a tonic that Ã¢â¬Å"could cure just about anything,Ã¢â¬ they accepted. In the medicine show, Houdini once again performed his escape acts; however, when attendance numbers began to dwindle, Dr. Hill asked Houdini if he could transform himself into a spirit medium. Houdini was already familiar with many of the spirit mediumÃ¢â¬â¢s tricks and so he began leading sÃ ©ances while Bess performed as a clairvoyant claiming to have psychic gifts. The Houdinis were very successful pretending to be spiritualists because they always did their research. As soon as they pulled into a new town, the Houdinis would read recent obituaries and visit graveyards to seek the names of the newly dead. They would also subtly listen to town gossip. All this allowed them to piece together enough information to convince crowds that the Houdinis were real spiritualists with amazing powers to contact the dead. However, feelings of guilt about lying to grief-stricken people eventually became overwhelming and the Houdinis ultimately quit the show. HoudiniÃ¢â¬â¢s Big Break With no other prospects, the Houdinis went back to performing with the Welsh Brothers Traveling Circus. While performing in Chicago in 1899, Houdini once again performed his police station stunt of escaping handcuffs, but this time it was different. Houdini had been invited into a room full of 200 people, mostly policemen, and spent 45 minutes shocking everyone in the room as he escaped from everything the police had. The following day, The Chicago Journal ran the headline Ã¢â¬Å"Amazes the DetectivesÃ¢â¬ with a large drawing of Houdini. The publicity surrounding Houdini and his handcuff act caught the eye of Martin Beck, the head of the Orpheum theater circuit, who signed him for a one-year contract. Houdini was to perform the handcuff escape act and Metamorphosis at the classy Orpheum theaters in Omaha, Boston, Philadelphia, Toronto, and San Francisco. Houdini was finally rising from obscurity and into the spotlight. Houdini Becomes an International Star In the spring of 1900, 26-year-old Houdini, exuding confidence as Ã¢â¬Å"The King of Handcuffs,Ã¢â¬ left for Europe in the hopes of finding success. His first stop was London, where Houdini performed at the Alhambra Theater. While there, Houdini was challenged to escape from Scotland YardÃ¢â¬â¢s handcuffs. As always, Houdini escaped and the theater was filled every night for months. The Houdinis went on to perform in Dresden, Germany, at the Central Theater, where ticket sales broke records. For five years, Houdini and Bess performed throughout Europe and even in Russia, with tickets often selling out ahead of time for their performances. Houdini had become an international star. HoudiniÃ¢â¬â¢s Death-Defying Stunts In 1905, the Houdinis decided to head back to the United States and try to win fame and fortune there as well. HoudiniÃ¢â¬â¢s specialty had become escapes. In 1906, Houdini escaped from jail cells in Brooklyn, Detroit, Cleveland, Rochester, and Buffalo. In Washington D.C., Houdini performed a widely publicized escape act involving the former jail cell of Charles Guiteau, the assassin of President James A. Garfield. Stripped and wearing handcuffs supplied by the Secret Service, Houdini freed himself from the locked cell, and then unlocked the adjoining cell where his clothes were waiting all within 18 minutes. However, escaping just from handcuffs or jail cells was no longer enough to get the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. Houdini needed new, death-defying stunts. In 1907, Houdini unveiled a dangerous stunt in Rochester, N.Y., where, with his hands handcuffed behind his back, he jumped from a bridge into a river. Then in 1908, Houdini introduced the dramatic Milk Can Escape, where he was locked inside a sealed milk can filled with water. The performances were huge hits. The drama and flirting with death made Houdini even more popular. In 1912, Houdini created the Underwater Box Escape. In front of a huge crowd along New Yorks East River, Houdini was handcuffed and manacled, placed inside a box, locked in, and thrown into the river. When he escaped just moments later, everyone cheered. Even the magazine Scientific American was impressed and proclaimed HoudiniÃ¢â¬â¢s feat as one of the most remarkable tricks ever performed. In September of 1912, Houdini debuted his famous Chinese Water Torture Cell escape at the Circus Busch in Berlin. For this trick, Houdini was handcuffed and shackled and then lowered, head first, into a tall glass box that had been filled with water. Assistants would then pull a curtain in front of the glass; moments later, Houdini would emerge, wet but alive. This became one of HoudiniÃ¢â¬â¢s most famous tricks. It seemed like there was nothing Houdini could not escape from and nothing he could not make audiences believe. He was even able to make Jennie the elephant disappear! World War I and Acting When the U.S. joined World War I, Houdini tried to enlist in the army. However, since he was already 43-years old, he was not accepted. Nonetheless, Houdini spent the war years entertaining soldiers with free performances. When the war was drawing to a close, Houdini decided to try acting. He hoped that motion pictures would be a new way for him to reach mass audiences. Signed by Famous Players-Lasky/Paramount Pictures, Houdini starred in his first motion picture in 1919, a 15-episode serial titled The Master Mystery. He also starred in The Grim Game (1919), and Terror Island (1920). However, the two feature films did not do well at the box office. Confident it was bad management that had caused the movies to flop, the Houdinis returned to New York and founded their own film company, the Houdini Picture Corporation. Houdini then produced and starred in two of his own films, The Man From Beyond (1922) and Haldane of the Secret Service (1923). These two films also bombed at the box office, leading Houdini to the conclusion that it was time to give up on moviemaking. Houdini Challenges Spiritualists At the end of World War I, there was a huge surge in people believing in Spiritualism. With millions of young men dead from the war, their grieving families looked for ways to contact them Ã¢â¬Å"beyond the grave.Ã¢â¬ Psychics, spirit mediums, mystics, and others emerged to fill this need. Houdini was curious but skeptical. He, of course, had pretended to be a gifted spirit medium back in his days with Dr. HillÃ¢â¬â¢s medicine show and thus knew many of the fake mediumÃ¢â¬â¢s tricks. However, if it were possible to contact the dead, he would love to once again talk to his beloved mother, who had passed away in 1913. Thus Houdini visited a large number of mediums and attended hundreds of sÃ ©ances hoping to find a real psychic; unfortunately, he found every one of them to be a fake. Along this quest, Houdini befriended famous author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, who was a devoted believer in Spiritualism after having lost his son in the war. The two great men exchanged many letters, debating the truthfulness of Spiritualism. In their relationship, Houdini was the one always looking for rational answers behind the encounters and Doyle remained the devoted believer. The friendship ended after Lady Doyle held a sÃ ©ance in which she claimed to channel automatic-writing from HoudiniÃ¢â¬â¢s mother. Houdini was not convinced. Among other issues with the writing was that it was all in English, a language HoudiniÃ¢â¬â¢s mother never spoke. The friendship between Houdini and Doyle ended bitterly and led to many antagonistic attacks against each other in newspapers. Houdini began to expose the tricks used by mediums. He gave lectures on the topic and often included demonstrations of these tricks during his own performances. He joined a committee organized by Scientific American who analyzed claims for a $2,500 prize for a true psychic phenomena (no one ever received the prize). Houdini also spoke in front of the U.S. House of Representatives, supporting a proposed bill that would ban telling fortunes for pay in Washington D.C. The result was that even though Houdini brought about some skepticism, it seemed to create more interest in Spiritualism. However, many Spiritualists were extremely upset at Houdini and Houdini received a number of death threats. Death of Houdini On October 22, 1926, Houdini was in his dressing room preparing for a show at McGill University in Montreal, when one of the three students he had invited backstage asked if Houdini really could withstand a strong punch to his upper torso. Houdini answered that he could. The student, J. Gordon Whitehead, then asked Houdini if he could punch him. Houdini agreed and started to get up off a couch when Whitehead punched him three times in the abdomen before Houdini had a chance to tense his stomach muscles. Houdini turned visibly pale and the students left. To Houdini, the show must always go on. Suffering from severe pain, Houdini performed the show at McGill University and then went on to do two more the following day. Moving on to Detroit that evening, Houdini grew weak and suffered from stomach pain and fever. Instead of going to the hospital, he once again went on with the show, and collapsed offstage. He was taken to a hospital and it was discovered that not only had his appendix burst, it was showing signs of gangrene. The next afternoon surgeons removed his appendix. The next day his condition worsened; they operated on him again. Houdini told Bess that if he died he would try to contact her from the grave, giving her a secret code - Ã¢â¬Å"Rosabelle, believe.Ã¢â¬ Houdini died at 1:26 p.m. on Halloween day, October 31, 1926. He was 52-years old. Headlines immediately read Ã¢â¬Å"Was Houdini Murdered?Ã¢â¬ Did he really have appendicitis? Was he poisoned? Why was there no autopsy? HoudiniÃ¢â¬â¢s life insurance company investigated his death and ruled out foul play, but for many, uncertainty regarding the cause of HoudiniÃ¢â¬â¢s death lingers. For years after his death, Bess attempted to contact Houdini through sÃ ©ances, but Houdini never contacted her from beyond the grave.
Saturday, February 29, 2020
Analysis of Windows Operating System and Microsoft What is Windows? Windows is a personal computer operating system from Microsoft that, together with some commonly used business applications such as Microsoft PowerPoint, Word and Excel, has become a de facto Ã¢â¬Å"standardÃ¢â¬ for individual users in most corporations as well as in most homes. It provides a graphical user interface (GUI), virtual memory management, multitasking, and support for many peripheral devices. According to OneStat.com, as of August, 2006, Windows as a whole dominates the personal computer world, running on about 97% of the operating system market share, with XP accounting for about 87% of that. In comparison Mac OS has about 2% and Linux (with all distributions) about .36% The reason why this is so is mainly because Windows is much more user friendly and everything comes pre-packaged so user just have to run the application and follow instructions for it to install. There are many versions of Windows Operating System available namely: Windows 286 W indows 386 Windows 3.0 and 3.11 Windows 95 Windows 98 Windows NT Windows 2000 Windows CE for use in small mobile computers Windows Me Windows XP Windows Vista Windows 7 Among all those versions, Windows XP is the most popular one and it is used by 61.9 percent of Internet users, according to data from Net Applications, followed by Windows 7 which has 14.46 percent of users and Vista -14.34 percent. A Brief Story On Windows Windows mainly concentrated on providing an operating system which was user-friendly, stable and less prone to crashes when they were implementing earlier versions. Now, even though XP is generally referred to being stable and efficient compared to other copies of Windows, it is still critised for being overly susceptible to security risks. Therefore the successor of XP- Vista, released in January of 2007 was designed in such a way so as it provides more security. The transition time between Vista and XP is the longest one between versions of windows. Vulnerabilities Of Windows What is vulnerability? Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"It is a weakness that makes a threat possible. Ã¢â¬Å" These vulnerabilities are used by attackers who exploits them to convey multiple attack, including enticing the users to open harmful and malicious media or to visit website which has a lot of viruses. These can have a lot of consequences. In the worst case, a hacker or attacker can get full access to the computer. Fortunately, windows provide a lot of solution to these vulnerabilities. The user just has to install the appropriate Microsoft patches or they are sometimes installed automatically with the help of Windows Update. Window Update Vulnerabilities can be compared to holes. They are like holes in the system. Windows periodically releases security patches mostly as Window Updates to fix those defects. There exists different level of security known as the Ã¢â¬Å"security level systemÃ¢â¬ in Windows which describes the different levels of security holes: A critical security hole is Ã¢â¬Å"a vulnerability whose exploitation could allow the propagation of an Internet worm without user action.Ã¢â¬ An important hole is Ã¢â¬Å" A vulnerability whoses exploitation could result in compromise of the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of userÃ¢â¬â¢s data, or of the integrity or availability of processing recources.Ã¢â¬